Calibration of a WDN using Optimization Techniques in Localization of Pressure Measurements by Applying Artificial Nodal Leaks

Document Type : Research Note



Undoubtedly, sampling design is an important issue in monitoring of a Water Distribution Network (WDN). The aim of the current paper which focuses on the localization of samplings, is to present a practical method for optimization of the position and number of the pressure measurements. This method works based on the assumption of some leakages in a network and searching for them by nodal pressure readings with the aid of two optimization loops using Ant Colony Optimization technique. The method is applied to the anytown network and the obtained results are compared with the previous works. The results are in good agreement with each other. Prior to field works of the installation of the pressure gages on the network, by analyzing the hydraulic model of the network, one can easily propose the best as well as the least nodes of the pressure measurements.


1. Shamir, U., and Howard, C. D. D. “Water Distribution Systems Analysis.” J. Hydraul. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 94(1), 219–234, (1968).
2. Walski, T. M., “Technique for Calibrating Network Models.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management., 109(4), pp. 360–372, (1983).
3. Kapelan, Z. S., Savic, D. A. and Walters, G. A. “Multiobjective Sampling Design for Water Distribution Model Calibration.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 129(6), pp. 466-479, (2003).
4. Kapelan, Z. S. and Savic, D. A.“Optimal Sampling Design Methodologies for Water Distribution Model Calibration.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 131(3), pp. 190-200, (2005).
5. Behzadian, K., Kapelan, Z., Savic, D. and Ardeshir, A. “Stochastic Sampling Design Using a Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Adaptive Neural Networks.” Environmental Modeling & Software, Vol. 24, pp. 530–541, (2009).
6. Isovitsch, S. L. and VanBriesen, J. M., “Sensor Placement and Optimization Criteria Dependencies in a Water Distribution System.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 134:(2), pp. 186-196, (2008).
7. Wu, Z. Y. and Sage, P., “Water Loss Detection Via Genetic Algorithm Optimization–Based Model Calibration.” ASCE 8th Annual International Symposium on Water Distribution System Analysis, Cincinnati, Ohio, (2006).
8. Karris, S. T., “ Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Excel.” Third Edition, Orchard Publications, (2007).
9. Rossman L. A., “EPANET.2 Users Manual.” Water Supply and Water Resources Division National Risk Management Research Laboratory Cincinnati, OH 45268, (2000).
10. Ostfeld. A., and Tubaltzev, A., “Ant Colony Optimization for Least-Cost Design and Operation of Pumping Water Distribution Systems.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 134, No. 2, pp. 107-118, (2008).
11. Maier, H. R., Simpson, A. R., Zecchin, A. C., Foong, W. K., Phang, K. Y., Seah, H. Y. and Tan, C. L., “Ant Colony Optimization for Design of Water Distribution Systems.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 129, No. 3, pp.200-209, (2003).
12. Cheung, P. B., Abe, N. and Propato, M., “Night Flow Analysis and Modeling for Leakage Estimation in a Water Distribution System.” Integrating Water Systems –Maksimovi´c, Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 509-513, (2010).
13. Kang, D. S., and Lansey, K. “Real-time State Estimation and Confidence Limit Analysis for Water Distribution Systems.” J. Hydraul. Eng., 135(10), 825–837, (2009).
14. Kapelan, Z., Savic, D.A., Walters and G.A., “Multiobjective Design of Water Distribution Systems under Uncertainty”, Water Resources Research 41 (11), W11407, doi:10.1029/2004WR003787, )2005(.